Meet Aldons Chua the Endocrine Nurse Grant Awardee

Aldons Chua is a nurse manager of the endocrine investigation suite in Eastbourne. In our interview he tells us about how he came to this role and the research he is doing with his Endocrine Nurse Grant.

How did you get into endocrinology?

I began my career working as an endoscopy and liver transplant nurse in the Philippines. I set foot in England in 2016 and started as a staff nurse in an acute medical unit at Eastbourne DGH. Endocrinology nursing was unknown to me until a colleague and friend who is now my manager, Maria Ravelo, invited me to do some extra shifts in the endocrine suite. During my shifts, I met patients with rare endocrine conditions and hearing their stories made me fascinated with the specialty.

Can you tell us about your current position?

My main role at present is managing the endocrine investigation suite, covering two district general hospitals, which includes performing dynamic function tests and providing health education for patients with adrenal insufficiency. I also facilitate the commencement and monitoring of treatment for general endocrine disorders.

What do you most enjoy about your work?

What I really enjoy is the autonomy as a nurse and collaboration with the multidisciplinary team. There is also so much support from colleagues even from different organisations and a variety of opportunities to grow personally and professionally. And, of course, seeing my patients have an improved quality of life through the care our team provided is the most rewarding part.

What are you most proud of in your career?

Becoming a nurse in the UK is what I consider as my proudest moment. As an overseas Filipino worker, it was a big leap of faith to move away from my family and homeland to work in another country with so much difference in language and culture. But it is such a blessing to have very supportive colleagues and managers who I have worked with since the very beginning, especially when it comes into my career aspirations.

How has your work been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic?

It has been very challenging. My associate practitioner and I were re-deployed to a COVID ward for 2 months during the first lockdown and our endocrine service was placed on a 10% service capacity. This caused a significant impact on the timings of our patient appointments, especially the investigations and teaching. However, it also made us resilient and innovative in our efforts to maintain the quality of care we provide while ensuring patient safety.

What do you think are the biggest challenges in your field?

We have a vision in our endocrine nursing service to provide excellent, safe and compassionate patient-centred nursing care. The biggest challenge is to keep the vision going, knowing that we only have very limited time and resources.

You have been awarded an Endocrine Nurse Grant, what was the application process and how did you find it?

Initially, I was reluctant to apply, as I had reservations about whether I qualified as I am still an early career nurse. I am very grateful to my mentor/research supervisor Dr Sofia Llahana who encouraged and guided me throughout the process. Also, the Society for Endocrinology set clear guidance on the website and the team were helpful in responding to my queries which made the process easier to follow.

What will the grant be used for?

The grant will be used to fund our research project which is investigating the barriers and enablers in the use of injection devices during adrenal crises for adrenal insufficiency (AI) patients. In the UK, most centres provide 3ml syringes and a needle or a safety syringe, depending on the centre, which are included in an emergency hydrocortisone injection pack. Although AI patients receive training on how to use these syringes there are still reports that they are unable to administer the hydrocortisone injection during an adrenal crisis due to the complexity of the device. First-hand reports of these problems from our own AI patients led to the research project. Adrenal crisis is a life-threatening event and the emergency injection of hydrocortisone can save a patient’s life. This grant will help us explore the experiences of AI patients on their use of the current hydrocortisone device during an adrenal crisis. The outcome will provide evidence of potentially modifiable barriers associated with the use of the current parenteral hydrocortisone in preventing adrenal crisis and will inform the development of future interventions.

What are your plans after completing this project?

I am looking forward to take on future projects looking at how we can further help and support our patients with adrenal insufficiency manage their condition even better. We are starting new nurse-led clinics soon and expanding the endocrine nursing service to help accommodate our increasing number of endocrine patients.

What advice would you give to anyone considering applying for the Endocrine Nurse Grant?

My first challenge was how to begin, so I connected with a mentor who works in the same area. Then, I familiarised myself with how to make a competitive research proposal as this is my first application. I believe that as nurses we have a huge desire to make a difference to the lives of our patients, and research is just one way. Take courage, and if you fail on the first attempt don’t lose heart, just keep on trying and improving.

Learn more about the Society’s Endocrine Nurse Grant and how to apply before the next deadline. Visit our dedicated endocrine nurse careers webpages for more advice and opportunities.

Meet Roland Stimson the Society’s 2021 Starling Medallist

Roland Stimson is a clinical academic endocrinologist, Professor of endocrinology and a CSO Scottish Senior Clinical Fellow at the University of Edinburgh as well as an honorary consultant at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. His main research interests are obesity, type 2 diabetes and energy metabolism. Here he tells us about breaking convention to build a career and why loves the discipline.

Tell us about your career path
Although you’re generally told not to stay in one place I’ve done exactly that, I went to university in Edinburgh then undertook my early clinical training just over the water in Fife. I didn’t do a BSc at university as I was keen to start seeing patients during my early clinical training. But I was really interested in human endocrine physiology so developed an interest in research and applied for a clinical fellow position to undertake my PhD with Professors Brian Walker and Ruth Andrew back in Edinburgh. I very much enjoyed this post and continued my clinical and research training with a clinical lecturer position thereafter. Subsequently, I obtained a MRC Clinician Scientist intermediate fellowship and more recently a Scottish Senior fellowship that has allowed me to continue my research in combination with my clinical work as an endocrinologist.

“I was always fascinated by the feedback mechanisms in endocrinology and how you could use these to pinpoint the pathology…”

What inspired you into research?
I’m really interested in human physiology and its dysregulation in disease, from the beginning I wanted to undertake research in humans and have tried to develop new techniques to better understand human physiology. I was always fascinated by the feedback mechanisms in endocrinology and how you could use these to pinpoint the pathology, by definition endocrinology is very much a multisystem discipline and it provides you with tremendous variety.

What do you enjoy most about your work?
I really enjoy discovering new mechanisms controlling human physiology, I find that fascinating and I particularly enjoy designing studies to try and answer research questions.

What will you be presenting in your lecture at SfE BES 2021?
I will be talking about our recent research on brown adipose tissue or brown fat in adult humans. This is an organ that increases energy expenditure to generate heat and a lack of brown fat is associated with poorer metabolic health. We’ve undertaken a number of studies in healthy volunteers to determine how human brown fat is regulated and I’ll be talking about the insights we’ve gained.

“I think this is incredibly important to improve patient outcomes not just for our own local patients, but the wider community, and often takes you down paths you never would have imagined so it is a very fulfilling career.”

What do you think are the main challenges in your field right now?
The prevalence of obesity continues to increase and is a major global health problem, therefore we need to find better treatments to safely help people lose weight and prevent the adverse metabolic sequelae of obesity. Many obesity treatments have been withdrawn due to safety concerns so finding pharmacotherapy that can safely achieve weight loss is a major challenge, although there have been some really promising, new developments recently in this area.

Any words of wisdom for aspiring endocrinologists?
I’m not sure I have any words of wisdom but I think endocrinology is a fascinating specialty that will continue to be intellectually stimulating for the duration of your career and contains so much variety that everyone should be able to find areas of particular interest to them. I would also certainly encourage young endocrinologists to become involved in research, I think this is incredibly important to improve patient outcomes not just for our own local patients but the wider community, and often takes you down paths you never would have imagined so it is a very fulfilling career.


You can attend Professor Roland Stimson’s Medal Lecture, “Strategies to turn up the heat – investigating human brown adipose tissue function” on Monday 8 November at 2:30pm.

Find out more about the scientific programme for SfE BES 2021.

Meet Heike Heuer the 2021 Pitt-Rivers Lecturer

Professor Heike Heuer is Professor for Molecular Thyroidology at the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at University Hospital Essen – University Duisburg-Essen in Germany. She is interested in thyroid hormone actions in the central nervous system (CNS) and uses mouse models to investigate the function of thyroid hormone transporters and to develop treatment strategies for patients with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome. As the 2021 British Thyroid Association Pitt-Rivers Lecturer, she will present a plenary at SfE BES 2021. In our interview, she talks about her research and highlights how preclinical animal studies can lead to important and useful clinical advances.

Tell us about your career so far

I studied biochemistry at the Leibniz University in Hanover, followed by a PhD in neuroendocrinology at the Max-Planck Institute for Experimental Endocrinology. As a postdoctoral fellow I joined Carol Mason’s lab in the Center for Neurobiology and Behavior at Columbia University, New York, where I extended my neurobiology training. I was appointed as an independent, junior group leader at the Leibniz Institute on Aging/Fritz Lipmann Institute in Jena, where I headed a neuroendocrinology group working on thyroid hormone transporters. Later I became a tenured group leader at the Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine in Düsseldorf and in 2018, I was appointed as a University Professor for Molecular Thyroidology in Essen.

What inspired you into research?

“I’m pleased that our findings contributed to the rapid establishment of a treatment option for patients with a rare and devastating disease.”

I became interested in neuroendocrinology during my undergraduate degree, as I found it fascinating how peripheral organs communicated with the brain and vice versa. Encouraged by my mentors, Karl Bauer and Theo Visser, I started my research career by examining the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) signaling system in the rodent CNS. I then became intrigued by the profound effects that thyroid hormones exerted on brain development and function. The breakthrough discovery of the highly specific thyroid hormone transporter MCT8 by Theo Visser and colleagues strongly influenced my research. It became unequivocally clear that thyroid hormones need transporters for transmembrane passage and, consequently, for reaching their receptors. The profound neurological phenotype of patients with inactivating MCT8 mutations (also known as Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome) encouraged us to develop mouse models in order to understand the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and also to investigate treatment strategies.

Now, a major focus of my group is to analyse cell-specific TH transporter mouse mutants as we aim to understand which proteins act as critical ‘gate-keepers’ for TH in the CNS, as well as in peripheral organs and how their transport activity is affected under pathophysiological conditions.

“Endocrinology is, in my opinion, a very attractive and exciting research field that offers many interdisciplinary interactions and cross-links with other disciplines.”

What are you proudest of in your career, so far?

With the generation of mice lacking both thyroid hormone transporter Mct8 and Oatp1c1, we successfully established a mouse model that replicates many clinical features of patients with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, a severe form of psychomotor retardation. Using this animal model, we were able to test therapeutic strategies including the application of the thyroid hormone analog, Triac. This treatment improved many neural impairments and based on our preclinical data, a first Triac Trial was successfully conducted, and a second Triac Trial is in progress. This highlights the importance of preclinical animal studies and I’m pleased that our findings contributed to the rapid establishment of a treatment option for patients with a rare and devastating disease.

What do you enjoy most about your work?

I mostly enjoy lively discussions with colleagues, coworkers and students about scientific studies and novel results.

What will you be presenting in your lecture at SfE BES 2021?

It is indeed a great honor for me to present the Pitt-Rivers lecture at the SfE BES 2021 as Rosalind Pitt-Rivers not only discovered T3 in her pioneering work, but was also the first to establish that the thyroid hormone metabolite, Triac, exerts T3-like effects in animals. To acknowledge her seminal achievements, I will highlight not only the impact of thyroid hormone transporter deficiency on brain development but also discuss how Triac application can improve neural differentiation, and may be a promising treatment option for patients with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome.

What do you think are the main challenges in your field right now?

According to the classical view, TH action is largely determined by circulating TH levels that are mainly regulated by negative feedback loops within the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. However, with the recent discovery of patients harboring defects in local TH signaling, e.g. due to genetic TH transporter or receptor mutations, this classical concept of TH action has been challenged. These patients clearly display a discordance between serum TH and TSH concentrations on the one hand, and tissue-specific TH deficiency and/or excess on the other hand. In other words, patients with TH and TSH concentrations within the normal range may still have a “hypothyroid” brain despite a “euthyroid” liver and may benefit from a CNS-specific TH supply. A major challenge is now to identify suitable biomarkers that indicate a tissue-specific change in TH status and to develop clinical strategies to modulate TH status in a cell/organ-specific manner. Certainly, a change in perspective from systemic towards local, tissue-oriented TH action will be needed for comprehensive understanding of TH effects in the body and will ultimately pave the way for the development of novel approaches for modulating cell-specific TH signaling under certain pathophysiological conditions.

What do you think will be the next breakthrough in your field?

I envision that the discoveries of novel mechanisms underlying local control of thyroid hormone action (e.g. identification of additional TH specific transporters or novel modes of TH action) will open new avenues to modulate TH signaling in a tissue- or even cell-specific manner (by applying e.g. novel TH receptor agonists, specific TH transporter inhibitors or novel trojan-horse hormone compounds).

Any words of wisdom for aspiring endocrinologists?

Endocrinology is, in my opinion, a very attractive and exciting research field that offers many interdisciplinary interactions and cross-links with other disciplines. Therefore, I can only strongly encourage young researchers or clinicians to become “endocrinologists”.

And for some words of wisdom, ‘Endocrine systems and their regulatory mechanisms and modes of action are complex – thus do not rely on selected serum values only. Always aim for the complete picture or you might miss important (and maybe yet unknown) local effects.’

You can attend Professor Heike Heuer’s Medal Lecture, Role of thyroid hormone transporters in brain development and function on Monday 8 November at 14:00 GMT.

Find out more about the scientific programme for SfE BES 2021.

Meet Greet Van den Berghe the Society’s 2021 European Medal winner

Professor Greet Van den Berghe is the head of the clinical department and laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine at KU Leuven University and its University Hospitals in Belgium. The Leuven Clinical Intensive Care department is a large, tertiary referral centre treating over 3,100 patients per year. She is also Professor of Medicine at KU Leuven and actively researches the endocrinology and metabolism of critical illness. Here she tells about her career, research and how important it is to break boundaries and challenge classical ideas in the pursuit of better patient care.

Tell us a little about your career path
After obtaining my medical degree, I trained in anesthesiology and intensive care, then in biostatistics and later completed a PhD in endocrinology. I followed this path so that I could work at the boundaries of several disciplines, which provided an excellent opportunity to build a multidisciplinary research team and to expand on translational research in endocrinology and metabolism of critical illness, from bed to bench and back.

What inspired you into research?
When I was a junior attending physician in the intensive care unit (ICU), I observed that long-stay ICU patients, both children and adults, quickly began to look much older than their chronological age. At the same time they showed endocrine and metabolic abnormalities that mimicked certain characteristic of ‘ageing’. I hypothesised that maybe this ‘accelerated ageing’ phenotype of ICU patients could in part be iatrogenic, and if so, may be preventable. These thoughts formed the basis for my PhD research, in which I demonstrated that dopamine infusion, a drug commonly used at the time for haemodynamic and renal support, was causing an iatrogenic suppression of the anterior pituitary with harmful consequences. Based on these findings the practice of infusing dopamine in the ICU was abandoned.

“Together we have made exciting discoveries and we were able to repeatedly close the loop from an original idea triggered by patient care, to basic research in the lab and back to randomised-controlled trials in patients.”

In my postdoctoral research, we went a step further and identified biphasic neuroendocrine and metabolic responses to acute and prolonged critical illness in both patients and animal models. This research clarified many earlier, apparent paradoxes and provided the basis for our later work that focused on the acute and long-term harmful impact of hyperglycemia, the early use of parenteral nutrition and the pathophysiology of the HPA axis response to the stress of critical illness.

What are you proudest of in your career, so far?
In 2002, I inherited a very large and well organised clinical intensive care department to chair, upon which I have built research from bed to bench and back again. There was no research in the department when I started, so I had to build everything from scratch. Over the years, this growing symbiosis, between high-level patient care and research, has proved to be very successful. This also allowed me to recruit the best clinicians and scientists who now work effectively together as a very close team.

“I enjoy thinking outside the box, creating new ideas by crossing boundaries between classical disciplines”

Together we have made exciting discoveries and we were able to repeatedly close the loop from an original idea triggered by patient care, to basic research in the lab and back to randomized-controlled trials in patients. That is such great fun! So, I am most proud of my team, and grateful to them for making me happy every day!

What do you enjoy most about your work?
I enjoy thinking outside the box, creating new ideas by crossing boundaries between classical disciplines, and working with young, enthusiastic physicians and scientists, to generate new knowledge that forms a solid basis for better patient care.

What will you be presenting in your lecture at SfE BES 2021?
In my talk, entitled “Re-thinking critical illness induced corticosteroid insufficiency”, I will present novel insights from our recent research on HPA axis changes that occur in response to acute and prolonged critical illness. I will challenge the classical paradigm of stress-induced increased ACTH-driven cortisol production as the basis for increased systemic cortisol availability in severely ill patients. I will also challenge the idea that a short ACTH stimulation test can diagnose failure of this stress response.

To say it with a metaphor: “What you see is not always what you get”.

Any words of wisdom for aspiring endocrinologists?
Look further than the boundaries of your own discipline, there is much to be learnt and innovated when you go beyond them!

You can attend Professor Van den Berghe’s Medal Lecture, Re-thinking critical illness induced corticosteroid insufficiency on Tuesday 9 November at 18:45.

Find out more about the scientific programme for SfE BES 2021.

Enhancing endocrine education: for medical students by medical students

Vaishali Limbachia is an intercalating medical student at Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia (UEA). Vaishali has completed four years of the course enter their final year in September 2021. Last year, Vaishali became Secretary of UEA Endocrinology Society and in November 2020 became an Endocrine Ambassador for the Society for Endocrinology. In this guest blog, Vaishali shares what the UEA Endocrinology Society has been up to so far, and the importance of supporting and encouraging students in endocrinology.

*pictured Vice President, Vaishali Limbachia (left), and President of UEA Endocrinology Society, Milly Green (right).

First, I would like to introduce our society. We are a society run by medical students, for medical students. The committee consists of 4th year, intercalating, and 5th year medical students. Guided by the President, we organise revision sessions for medical students currently learning diabetes and endocrinology, in addition to other events that aim to raise interest in endocrinology. We also run social media pages, keeping our members informed of our society news and events, as well as Society for Endocrinology activities. To further engage with our members, weekly diabetes and endocrinology exam-style, multiple-choice questions are created by the committee members and posted on our social media pages.

Each academic term we have organised and delivered a teaching session on diabetes and on endocrinology. The aim of these sessions is to revise content from the medical school curriculum, which at Norwich Medical School, is taught in year 3. The presentation slides used for lectures are constructed by committee members. It can be challenging to cover a module worth of content in a couple of hours. The sessions are taught by medical students who have undergone diabetes and endocrinology teaching, placements and exams, so are able to provide useful tips.

On top of the teaching sessions, we organise and run mock objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), aiming to give medical students a practice run. We design 6 stations, for example a diabetic foot examination and communication skills station, to give members a realistic experience of the summative OSCE. Each committee member runs one station to keep that station consistently delivered. At the end of each station, we feedback verbally to students. In addition, we provide a marking scheme, which we constructed for written feedback, so students can see where marks were given. This allows students to gauge their learning needs in preparation for their summative OSCE. These mock exams are highly subscribed and the feedback is very positive.

This year I organised our first Diabetes and Endocrinology Careers Event, targeted at medical students. Three consultants kindly volunteered their time to speak at the event. Each spoke about their motivating force that led them to choose this specialism, their professional journey, what their day-to-day life is like and shared top tips for medical students. This was followed by an opportunity to ask questions. Speakers shared highly interesting patient cases, showing how the specialism involves detective work and how endocrinology impacts multiple systems. Each speaker’s professional journey was very different, emphasising how there is more than one path to follow. Many useful tips were shared, for example getting involved in research, and opportunities at the Society for Endocrinology. It was a highly inspiring and informative event, that I personally enjoyed, and the feedback was positive, with the only suggestions for improvement being they wished it was longer! I found the event reinforced my passion for specialising in diabetes and endocrinology in the future.

I have had a fantastic year working with great colleagues, who share an interest in diabetes and endocrinology, in organising events and sharing our interests with other students. Next academic year, I will fortunately continue being a part of this brilliant society and assume the role of Vice President of UEA Endocrinology Society. I look forward to working with the new committee members, putting on more events and continuing to share Society for Endocrinology activities and opportunities to members.

Find out more and apply to become an Endocrine Ambassador.

Please email ambassadors@endocrinology.org if you have any questions.

Embracing the diversity of endocrinology: an interview with Dr Alexander Comninos

Dr Alexander Comninos is a consultant in endocrinology and diabetes and honorary clinical senior lecturer at Imperial College London. His research interests are in reproductive endocrinology and metabolic bone disease and he has presented internationally, winning several prestigious prizes including the Society’s Early Career and Clinical Endocrinology Trust Prizes. Alex currently sits on the Society’s Science Committee and is a previous Leadership and Development Awards Programme Awardee. Read our interview with him to find out about his career, the current challenges in his field, and how he thinks endocrinology will change in the future.

*A late night collaborative meeting at a Kebab House during SfE BES 2015

Tell us about your current position

I feel very fortunate as my current role combines clinical work, research and teaching. One day I may be running our endocrine bone clinic, the next day I could be on call for acute medicine, or analysing data and finishing a research paper, lecturing and tutoring undergraduates, or meeting my PhD students. I really enjoy the fact that each day is different and endocrinology is the theme through most of it, with so many opportunities to combine clinical and academic work.

I love endocrinology because it encompasses the whole body system and has so many possibilities for research to improve patient care.

What are you proudest of in your career so far?

Looking back on my career so far, I am so happy that I made it through all the harder times in medicine and academia. Long runs of night-shifts and previous unsuccessful grant applications certainly tested my perseverance but made me stronger!

What do you think are the biggest challenges in endocrinology right now?

With increasing patient use of social media and the internet in general sometimes misinforming patients, we have to ensure that we provide clear and accurate information to patients and address their concerns. In addition, although we are hopefully emerging from the COVID-19 pandemic, an element of remote medicine is clearly here to stay. With patient compliance, subtle symptoms and blood tests so integral to endocrinology, we need to find new ways to monitor these in a remote medicine environment.

How do you think your field of research will change in the future

Genetics is such a rapidly developing field. I suspect we will be routinely performing full cheap gene sequencing and using this information to guide management at an individual level.

In the future I think we will see the increasing incorporation of genetics to guide individualised treatment.

What is it like being involved with the Society for Endocrinology?

We are lucky to have such a well-run society. I currently sit on the Science Committee which is an absolute pleasure. Interacting with other basic and clinical endocrinologists, each with different opinions and interests is really fascinating and constantly thought-provoking. I would like to see the Society push on with in-person meetings, when safe to do so, as I feel this is so important for our morale on an individual as well as a collective basis.

Who are your most inspirational endocrinologists?

Like many others, Professor Karim Meeran is a large part of why I chose endocrinology, and Professor Waljit Dhillo is the inspiration behind my academic pursuits. Their dedication to trainee development, super approachable nature, calmness and sense of what is best, is really incredible and I am sure numerous trainees would agree. I also have to say that Dr Cox at St Mary’s has been a real clinical inspiration for me. I was his house-officer many years ago, and now to sit next door as a consultant colleague always makes me smile. His incredible experience, knowledge and deep interest in endocrine physiology have certainly helped shape my early consultant years, and we have had many enthralling clinical discussions!

Any words of wisdom for aspiring researchers in endocrinology?

It is a wonderful specialty, full of surprises and opportunities. Be inquisitive constantly, question things to understand concepts and remember the journey is lifelong.



The Society for Endocrinology is 75 years old in 2021. As part of our celebrations, we are collecting members’ opinions, with a focus towards the future – after a particularly hard year for us all!

We are keen to reflect the diversity and breadth of our discipline by hearing from members across all backgrounds, career stages, career types and geographical locations, to get a true flavour of the range of views, needs and challenges faced by our Society members.

Would you like to get involved and share your views? Simply complete this short questionnaire or send your comments to media@endocrinology.org.

Embracing the diversity of endocrinology: an interview with Dr Gareth Nye

Dr Gareth Nye is a lecturer in anatomy and physiology at the University of Chester. His main research interests are maternal and foetal health. In our interview, he tells us about his career so far, his research and how he thinks his field will develop in the future.

Tell us a bit about your current position

My recent research has been focused on improving outcomes for both mum and baby before, during and after pregnancy. More specifically I’ve been researching placental causes of foetal growth restriction, whilst also looking into the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on maternity care.

I love endocrinology because it impacts every aspect of human health and disease

The most enjoyable aspect of my role as a lecturer is getting engagement from the students. When a student is really exploring a topic and that enthusiasm comes out in lectures or otherwise, it’s such a great feeling. With my research being in a field where you can make such a huge difference is also so rewarding. There’s still so much we don’t fully understand around pregnancy, so there is always new areas to look into.

What are you proudest of in your career so far?

There are many career moments that I’m proud of, for a wide range of reasons. Being nominated for “most inspirational lecturer” from students at the University of Chester is an achievement I’m proud of, for both personal and professional reasons.

Additionally, I’m particularly proud of our review of placental oxygenation in the Journal of Physiology and finally, speaking at the International Federation of Placenta Associations conference in Tokyo was an amazing experience!

What do you think are the biggest challenges in your field of research right now?

I think there are multiple challenges within maternal and foetal health and pregnancy research. If I had to name three major themes they would be

  • Ensuring every baby is delivered healthy and that every mum remains healthy, during and after the pregnancy. Finding novel interventions to improve foetal outcomes in utero, without the need for early delivery and shining a spotlight on the physical and mental changes that pregnancy has on the mother’s body, both during and after the pregnancy itself
  • Fully understanding the impact the maternal environment has on foetal lifelong outcomes – this involves the discussion around Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
  • Exploring the maternal/foetal interface to improve outcomes for the baby – this includes the placenta, breastmilk and circumstances following birth

Can you explain more about how you think your field of research will change in the future?

In the future we will challenge the current understanding around pregnancy and early childhood. Not enough is known yet and it's limiting our ability to intervene productively.

As pregnancy research, particularly in humans, is challenging for a number of reasons I can see the field collaborating more with other disciplines, even though not necessarily involved in medicine. For example, I have recent research papers with mathematicians, engineers and physicists, who can bring their knowledge and expertise to fill in gaps in our biological knowledge. Additionally, with the improvement of imaging techniques, we can slowly begin to understand the important microanatomy of the placenta and uterus to see if/how we can improve pregnancy outcomes. Without thinking of our research fields as one slice in a huge pie, we can never make true advances and so collaborating with different areas is key. Particularly as everything can be influenced by the body’s endocrinology!

What is it like being a Society for Endocrinology member?

I have to say, since joining this society I have felt so welcomed into a community. I’ve been given opportunities that have never been presented to me before from other societies. The Society on the whole seems to actively push and support their more junior members.

Unfortunately, I’ve not had the chance to attend any Society events in person yet but hopefully I will get the opportunity to attend soon!

Who is your most inspirational scientist?
Again, speaking personally, the most inspirational endocrinologist to me is Frederick Banting, the discoverer of insulin. This is because my 4 year old daughter has type 1 diabetes and without insulin, she wouldn’t be with us anymore! I think a lot of people have Banting’s discovery to thank!

John Hunter always sticks out as someone who should be more famous than he is. He truly is one of the greatest anatomists of our time, discovering much of what we know now around anatomy and physiology all without a formal school education. Of interest to my work – he was the first to note that maternal and foetal blood supplies are separate during pregnancy

Any words of wisdom for aspiring researchers in endocrinology?

Speaking from experience, something I like to tell my students is not to stick to your own little bubble. Everything in medicine and biology is connected in one way or another and keeping an open mind to your research can allow you to progress, where you may not have otherwise. Due to this, don’t be afraid to switch “topics” because you can always find common themes.

Finally, make sure you enjoy what you do! I’ve been lucky to work in some amazing areas, with amazing people but what’s really helped is enjoying my work!



The Society for Endocrinology is 75 years old in 2021. As part of our celebrations, we are collecting members’ opinions, with a focus towards the future – after a particularly hard year for us all!

We are keen to reflect the diversity and breadth of our discipline by hearing from members across all backgrounds, career stages, career types and geographical locations, to get a true flavour of the range of views, needs and challenges faced by our Society members.

Would you like to get involved and share your views? Simply complete this short questionnaire or send your comments to media@endocrinology.org.

Embracing the diversity of endocrinology: an interview with Professor Rachel Crowley

Professor Rachel Crowley is a consultant endocrinologist at St Vincent’s University Hospital Dublin and a Clinical Professor at University College Dublin in Ireland. In our interview, she tells us about her career, shares her thoughts on the future of endocrinology and considers the possible improvements patient care.

Tell us a bit about your current position

My job is a mix of clinical work, research and teaching. Ours is a busy centre for neuroendocrine tumours and adrenal pathology, and I run the rare bone disease service which is a national Orphanet clinic. I also cover pituitary, gonadal, thyroid and general endocrine clinics, inpatient diabetes and endocrinology consults and general internal medicine. I love endocrinology because for each patient I assess and reason from scratch, it’s never boring.

What are you proudest of in your career so far?

I love endocrinology because for each patient I assess and reason from scratch, it’s never boring.

I’m proud of how the trainees I have worked with on my team have progressed in their own careers and how they have kept in contact. The Christmas cards, emails and WhatsApp messages from around the world are lovely to receive. I gave a talk at virtual ENDO this year and a trainee in Canada realised I would be getting a train home late from work after the panel discussion – she messaged me to be sure I got home safely! These personal connections make a big difference.

How much has your work changed since you started your career?

The general internal medicine commitment has increased, even in the relatively short time since I have been a consultant. The developments in endocrine genetics and in adrenal medicine have happened quickly in the last 10 years so it can be challenging to keep our practice up to the standards we expect of ourselves. The increased contact with patient advocacy groups is very welcome and rewarding – that was something that we didn’t learn about as undergraduates or have much exposure to as trainees.

The more access we have to genomics and proteomics, the more I think we’ll be able to deliver an individual treatment plan for the patient sitting in front of us – I think that’s really attractive to patients and satisfying for us in our own practice.

What do you think have been the major milestones in clinical practice during your career?

There is far more insight into the impact of genetic profiling on the clinical care plan for individual patients. Immunotherapy has had a huge impact on clinical oncology but has generated a whole new cohort of patients for us as endocrinologists. Improvement in oncology patient survival has also generated a cohort of survivors who have a wide range of endocrine late effects we need to address, as well as recognising the psychological impact of their experience.

What do you think are the biggest challenges in endocrinology right now?

I think the big challenge is reconciling the need for specialisation with the need for good basic care. Endocrinologists are often committed heavily to general internal medicine and I think we’re very good at it, because our specialty is broad and our training makes us excellent problem solvers. Our specialty contribution should not be overlooked because of our general medicine contribution. And of course we need to recognise when we need expert input and when we need to step up and become that expert ourselves.

What are you most looking forward to as part of the future of endocrinology?

The increased contact with patient advocacy groups is very welcome and rewarding – that was something that we didn’t learn about as undergraduates or have much exposure to as trainees.

I’m looking forward to more recognition of our specialty by outside stakeholders – because I think that will lead to more robust funding of doctors, nurses and research by national bodies. I think we’re working hard towards that increase in profile. The more access we have to genomics and proteomics, the more I think we’ll be able to deliver an individual treatment plan for the patient sitting in front of us – I think that’s really attractive to patients and satisfying for us in our own practice.

Who has inspired you most in your career?

I have had the benefit of lots of mentors over my career. Chris Thompson supervised my MD in craniopharyngioma and I learned the importance of intellectual rigour and patient-focused intervention from him. His colleague Mark Sherlock was a peer mentor, if such a thing can be said; Mark’s value for collegiality and networking to deliver better patient outcomes has led to ongoing clinical and research collaboration today. In my time at the University of Birmingham Paul Stewart and Wiebke Arlt led by expecting the highest standards from all of us – everybody raised their game – and Neil Gittoes was a key link with the Society for Endocrinology and my career development after completing training.

Do you have any words of wisdom for aspiring endocrinologists?

Keep reading. Keep asking questions. Keep going to meetings and thinking – how does this apply to my patients? Keep talking to your patients and telling them about these new developments you’re hearing about. Keep in touch with your former colleagues and be a good collaborator. Keep an open mind, apply scientific rigour and make up your own mind.


The Society for Endocrinology is 75 years old in 2021. As part of our celebrations, we are collecting members’ opinions, with a focus towards the future – after a particularly hard year for us all!

We are keen to reflect the diversity and breadth of our discipline by hearing from members across all backgrounds, career stages, career types and geographical locations, to get a true flavour of the range of views, needs and challenges faced by our Society members.

Would you like to get involved and share your views? Simply complete this short questionnaire or send your comments to media@endocrinology.org.

Meet Early Career Nurse Committee Member, Emily Falconer

Read this interview with our new Early Career Member of the Society Nurse Committee and Endocrine Clinical Nurse Specialist at Maidstone Hospital, Emily Falconer, to find out more about her career what she enjoys most about endocrine nursing.

Tell us a little about your current position

I’ve been working in my role at Maidstone Hospital and Tunbridge Wells Trust for just over a year. My role varies from day to day – each day usually consists of dynamic function tests, running nurse-led thyroid clinics, presenting at multidisciplinary team meetings, patient steroid education clinics and chasing and interpreting results. Aside from this, I have recently joined as the Early Career Nurse Representative for the Society for Endocrinology Nurse Committee.

What inspired you to choose endocrinology as a career?

Before my current role, I was working on a busy acute medical ward specialising in gastroenterology, cardiology and endocrinology. It was here that I developed an interest in endocrinology and its vast array of conditions. I was then fortunate to take over the role of Endocrine Clinical Nurse Specialist when the position became available within my Trust.

What do you enjoy most about your work?

I love the patient interaction and enjoy being a person of contact for them if they are in need of help or reassurance with their condition. I find it very rewarding when you can see the difference in patients’ wellbeing and empowering them to manage their condition.

Can you tell us about your career path and what you are most proud of?

I suppose I am proud of what I am doing today! I qualified in 2016 and then worked on the wards and as a Junior Sister. I am extremely excited to work as a Specialist Nurse in a field that I have great interest in and that has many potential areas to get involved in.

Do you have research interests?

Currently I feel I am still on a steep learning curve so I am focussing on progressing and developing within my current role. However, research is definitely something I would like to explore in the future and having been involved with the Society, I have now realised the extensive opportunities and prospects within endocrine research.

How has the COVID-19 pandemic affected your work?

I have been fortunate enough to be able to continue our endocrine service throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. However my unit where I perform my dynamic function tests has been moved a total of five times during the pandemic, which has kept me on my toes! It has also meant that unfortunately I have had to temporarily postpone my learning and training at alternative Trusts.

What do you think are the biggest challenges in your field?

Aside from COVID-19, the large amount of patients we are treating with lasting endocrine effects from the immunotherapy agents used in cancer therapy.

What do you think will be the next major breakthrough in your field?

I am excited by the new prospects in the medical management of Cushing’s, such as the development of medications including Osilodrostat and Melanocortin-2 receptor antagonists.

Any advice for anyone interested in endocrine nursing?

If you would like a role which treats a magnitude of fascinating conditions and allows you to keep patient contact while making a difference to quality of life, then this a great opportunity to do all of that! I would advise to gain basic knowledge within an endocrine setting if possible. Working on an endocrine ward really helps as an introduction to the field.